Spartacus Gladiator Aus einer kleinen Revolte wird mehr
Spartacus, dt. Spartakus, war ein römischer Sklave und Gladiator. Historische Bedeutung erlangte er als Anführer eines nach ihm benannten Sklavenaufstandes im Römischen Reich der Antike während der späten Römischen Republik. Spartacus, dt. Spartakus (gestorben 71 v. Chr. in der Zweiten Schlacht am Silarus), war ein römischer Sklave und Gladiator. Historische Bedeutung erlangte er. Im Jahr 73 vor Christus wagt ein gefangener Gladiator das Ungeheuerliche: Spartacus führt Roms Sklaven in einen Aufstand gegen die Supermacht. Doch das. Das Leben des Spartacus wurde oft verfilmt. Doch in vielen Streifen wimmelt es von Fehlern. So war der Gladiator kein Grobian, sondern recht. Der Gladiator Spartacus gehört nicht zu den Freiwilligen. Er kommt von einem Sklavenmarkt, von wo er an die Gladiatorenschule in Capua.
Spartacus (thrakischer Name unbekannt, deutsch auch Spartakus geschrieben) ist ein thrakischer Krieger, der ein berühmter Gladiator in der Arena gewesen ist. Der Gladiator Spartacus gehört nicht zu den Freiwilligen. Er kommt von einem Sklavenmarkt, von wo er an die Gladiatorenschule in Capua. Spartacus, dt. Spartakus (gestorben 71 v. Chr. in der Zweiten Schlacht am Silarus), war ein römischer Sklave und Gladiator. Historische Bedeutung erlangte er.
Was he a rebel hero — as modern legend holds — a reckless rabble-rouser, or both? Everything we know about Spartacus comes from second- or even third-hand sources, ancient historians who were born decades after his death in 71 B.
And since ancient times, the man has been thoroughly mythologized by everyone from Stanley Kubrick to Bertolt Brecht. Before the rebel leader marched his men up and down Italy and relentlessly crushed the Roman opposition, he was but a boy.
According to ancient historians, he was born in Thrace, which encompassed parts of modern-day Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey. After the Third Macedonian War in the second century B.
According to Greek historian Appian of Alexandria , who lived mainly in the second century A. In 75 A. They say that when he was first taken to Rome to be sold, a snake was seen coiled round his head while he was asleep and his wife, who came from the same tribe and was a prophetess subject to possession by the frenzy of [the god of ecstasy] Dionysus, declared that this sign meant that he would have a great and terrible power which would end in misfortune.
In Capua, Spartacus was forced under the torturous tutelage of Lentulus Batiatus, who kept his gladiators jam-packed in close quarters until they had to fight in the ring.
Wikimedia Commons The amphitheater in Capua, where gladiators like Spartacus were forced to train and fight.
According to Plutarch, the slave rebellion that became the Third Servile War began with 78 people and a few dozen kitchen knives.
In 73 B. After overcoming their guards and escaping to the Italian countryside, the men encountered a caravan of wagons.
The men seized both arms and transport and headed to the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, plundering villages, splitting the spoils, and amassing more men along the way.
Instead, Glaber conscripted men en route. Glaber and his 3, soldiers blocked the only path Spartacus and his men could use to flee their spot on a hill.
So instead of trying to charge at the Roman army, the former slaves got crafty: Using vines and tree branches, they made ladders that could reach the plains below.
Without Glaber and his men noticing, they all made it down safely, ran around to the other side of the Romans, and defeated them in a surprise attack.
Their victories rallied slaves and others from across the region. What began as a mere quest to become free men suddenly turned into a gathering of volunteer soldiers.
Slaves and free folk they encountered, from shepherds to herdsmen, joined Spartacus and his men to defend themselves against any tyrannical entity desperate for subjects.
Thus, he resigned himself to one goal: getting home. In order to do so effectively, keeping his men safe while retaining strength in numbers, he split his army into two groups.
The rest, mainly Thracians, followed Spartacus. Though his plan was to get back home to Thrace as quickly as possible, many of his men had different plans.
According to Plutarch:. But they, grown confident in their numbers, and puffed by with their success, would give no obedience to him, but went about and ravaged Italy; so that now the Senate was not only moved at the indignity and baseness, both of the enemy and of the insurrection, but, looking upon it as a matter of alarm and dangerous consequence.
With Rome alarmed at the success Spartacus was having in battle, the Senate sent Gen. Marcus Licinius Crassus to deal with the rising threat.
He traveled to Picenum, a region on the Adriatic coast where he knew Spartacus was stationed, with 10 legions. Crassus stationed most of his men on the outskirts of Picenum and sent his lieutenant, Mummius, and two legions to follow Spartacus.
Wikimedia Commons When Spartacus and his men were defeated, 6, of his followers were crucified and lined up between Capua and Rome as a deterrent to potential rebels.
Mummius was ordered not to engage in battle, but merely redirect the enemy and force them north. In his stubborn hubris, however, Mummius attacked — and was soundly defeated.
Crassus ordered their decimation. This meant that the 5, men were split into 50 groups of 10, and essentially drew straws.
Every unlucky tenth was killed. Spartacus then switched gears and marched his men toward Sicily. He hoped to take over the island, where slaves had revolted in two different wars in the last 70 years.
He planned to escape to Sicily on a fleet of pirate ships, but the pirates sailed off with his gifts in tow before the rebels boarded the boats.
So he stationed his men on the peninsula of Rhegium, in southern Italy, to plot his next move. Around here is where the two main authorities on Spartacus — Appian and Plutarch — diverge in their storytelling.
According to Appian, Crassus and the Romans walled the slaves in with ditches and dirt. Little is known about him beyond the events of the war, and surviving historical accounts are sometimes contradictory.
However, all sources agree that he was a former gladiator and an accomplished military leader. This rebellion, interpreted by some as an example of oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning oligarchy , has provided inspiration for many political thinkers, and has been featured in literature, television, and film.
The Greek essayist Plutarch describes Spartacus as "a Thracian of Nomadic stock",  in a possible reference to the Maedi tribe.
Florus described him as one "who, from a Thracian mercenary, had become a Roman soldier, that had deserted and became enslaved, and afterward, from consideration of his strength, a gladiator".
The name Spartacus is otherwise manifested in the Black Sea region. Five out of twenty Kings of the Thracian Spartocid dynasty of the Cimmerian Bosporus  and Pontus  are known to have borne it, and a Thracian "Sparta" "Spardacus"  or "Sparadokos",  father of Seuthes I of the Odrysae , is also known.
According to the differing sources and their interpretation, Spartacus was a captive taken by the legions. He was a heavyweight gladiator called a murmillo.
These fighters carried a large oblong shield scutum , and used a sword with a broad, straight blade gladius , about 18 inches long.
About 70  slaves were part of the plot. Though few in number, they seized kitchen utensils, fought their way free from the school, and seized several wagons of gladiatorial weapons and armour.
Once free, the escaped gladiators chose Spartacus and two Gallic slaves— Crixus and Oenomaus —as their leaders. Although Roman authors assumed that the escaped slaves were a homogeneous group with Spartacus as their leader, they may have projected their own hierarchical view of military leadership onto the spontaneous organization, reducing other slave leaders to subordinate positions in their accounts.
The response of the Romans was hampered by the absence of the Roman legions, which were already engaged in fighting a revolt in Spain and the Third Mithridatic War.
Furthermore, the Romans considered the rebellion more of a policing matter than a war. Rome dispatched militia under the command of praetor Gaius Claudius Glaber , who besieged Spartacus and his camp on Mount Vesuvius, hoping that starvation would force Spartacus to surrender.
They were surprised when Spartacus, who had made ropes from vines, climbed down the cliff side of the volcano with his men and attacked the unfortified Roman camp in the rear, killing most of them.
The rebels also defeated a second expedition, nearly capturing the praetor commander, killing his lieutenants and seizing the military equipment.
Also due to Social War, some of Spartacus' ranks were legion veterans. The rural slave lived a life in the frontier thus better equipping themselves to march with Spartacus' army.
In contrast, urban slaves were more suited for city life, being considered "privileged" and "lazy. In these altercations Spartacus proved to be an excellent tactician , suggesting that he may have had previous military experience.
Though the rebels lacked military training , they displayed a skilful use of available local materials and unusual tactics when facing the disciplined Roman armies.
In the spring of 72 BC, the rebels left their winter encampments and began to move northward.
At the same time, the Roman Senate , alarmed by the defeat of the praetorian forces, dispatched a pair of consular legions under the command of Lucius Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus.
These defeats are depicted in divergent ways by the two most comprehensive extant histories of the war by Appian and Plutarch.
Alarmed at the continued threat posed by the slaves, the Senate charged Marcus Licinius Crassus , the wealthiest man in Rome and the only volunteer for the position,  with ending the rebellion.
Crassus was put in charge of eight legions, approximately 40, trained Roman soldiers,  [ failed verification ]  which he treated with harsh, even brutal discipline, reviving the punishment " decimation" on units.
Though ordered not to engage the rebels, Mummius attacked at a seemingly opportune moment but was routed. According to Plutarch , Spartacus made a bargain with Cilician pirates to transport him and some 2, of his men to Sicily , where he intended to incite a slave revolt and gather reinforcements.
However, he was betrayed by the pirates, who took payment and then abandoned the rebels. Crassus's legions followed and upon arrival built fortifications across the isthmus at Rhegium, [ citation needed ] despite harassing raids from the rebels.
The rebels were now under siege and cut off from their supplies. At this time, the legions of Pompey returned from Hispania and were ordered by the Senate to head south to aid Crassus.
When the legions managed to catch a portion of the rebels separated from the main army,  discipline among Spartacus's forces broke down as small groups independently attacked the oncoming legions.
The final battle that saw the assumed defeat of Spartacus in 71 BC took place on the present territory of Senerchia on the right bank of the river Sele in the area that includes the border with Oliveto Citra up to those of Calabritto, near the village of Quaglietta, in the High Sele Valley, which at that time was part of Lucania.
In this area, since , there have been finds of armour and swords of the Roman era. Plutarch, Appian and Florus all claim that Spartacus died during the battle, but Appian also reports that his body was never found.
Classical historians were divided as to the motives of Spartacus. None of Spartacus's actions overtly suggest that he aimed at reforming Roman society or abolishing slavery.
Plutarch writes that Spartacus wished to escape north into Cisalpine Gaul and disperse his men back to their homes.
Appian and Florus write that he intended to march on Rome itself. Based on the events in late 73 BC and early 72 BC, which suggest independently operating groups of escaped slaves  and a statement by Plutarch, it appears that some of the escaped slaves preferred to plunder Italy, rather than escape over the Alps.
Toussaint Louverture , a leader of the slave revolt that led to the independence of Haiti , has been called the "Black Spartacus".
Adam Weishaupt , founder of the Bavarian Illuminati , often referred to himself as Spartacus within written correspondences.
In modern times, Spartacus became an icon for communists and socialists. Karl Marx listed Spartacus as one of his heroes and described him as "the most splendid fellow in the whole of ancient history" and a "great general, noble character, real representative of the ancient proletariat ".
Several sports clubs around the world, in particular the former Soviet and the Communist bloc, were named after the Roman gladiator.Auch in anderen Zusammenhängen taucht sein Name immer wieder als Symbolfigur gegen Unterdrückung und Knechtschaft auf. Und was wissen wir von ihm? Insgesamt haben aber mehr als 30 antike Schriftsteller über ihn geschrieben — für eine antike Persönlichkeit sicher eine beachtliche Zahl. In der folgenden Schlacht wurde Kindergarten Espelkamp Rebellenarmee komplett aufgerieben, Spartacus selbst fiel. Noch im selben Jahr gelingt es ihm, zusammen mit etwa 70 anderen Gefangenen. Im Frühjahr 72 v. Eine aussichtslose Situation, wie es scheint.