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The immigrants to the Americas came from every region of Europe, Africa, and Asia. They mixed among themselves and with the indigenous inhabitants of the continent.
In the United States most people who self-identify as African—American have some European ancestors , while many people who identify as European American have some African or Amerindian ancestors.
Since the early history of the United States, Amerindians, African—Americans, and European Americans have been classified as belonging to different races.
Efforts to track mixing between groups led to a proliferation of categories, such as mulatto and octoroon. The criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century.
During Reconstruction , increasing numbers of Americans began to consider anyone with " one drop " of known "Black blood" to be Black, regardless of appearance.
By the early 20th century, this notion was made statutory in many states. Amerindians continue to be defined by a certain percentage of "Indian blood" called blood quantum.
To be White one had to have perceived "pure" White ancestry. The one-drop rule or hypodescent rule refers to the convention of defining a person as racially black if he or she has any known African ancestry.
This rule meant that those that were mixed race but with some discernible African ancestry were defined as black. The one-drop rule is specific to not only those with African ancestry but to the United States, making it a particularly African-American experience.
The decennial censuses conducted since in the United States created an incentive to establish racial categories and fit people into these categories.
The term " Hispanic " as an ethnonym emerged in the 20th century with the rise of migration of laborers from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America to the United States.
Today, the word "Latino" is often used as a synonym for "Hispanic". The definitions of both terms are non-race specific, and include people who consider themselves to be of distinct races Black, White, Amerindian, Asian, and mixed groups.
In contrast to "Latino" or "Hispanic", " Anglo " refers to non-Hispanic White Americans or non-Hispanic European Americans , most of whom speak the English language but are not necessarily of English descent.
One result of debates over the meaning and validity of the concept of race is that the current literature across different disciplines regarding human variation lacks consensus , though within some fields, such as some branches of anthropology, there is strong consensus.
Some studies use the word race in its early essentialist taxonomic sense. Many others still use the term race, but use it to mean a population, clade , or haplogroup.
Others eschew the concept of race altogether, and use the concept of population as a less problematic unit of analysis. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva , Sociology professor at Duke University, remarks,  "I contend that racism is, more than anything else, a matter of group power; it is about a dominant racial group whites striving to maintain its systemic advantages and minorities fighting to subvert the racial status quo.
Color-blind racism thrives on the idea that race is no longer an issue in the United States. The concept of race classification in physical anthropology lost credibility around the s and is now considered untenable.
Race does not provide an accurate representation of human biological variation. It was never accurate in the past, and it remains inaccurate when referencing contemporary human populations.
Humans are not divided biologically into distinct continental types or racial genetic clusters. Instead, the Western concept of race must be understood as a classification system that emerged from, and in support of, European colonialism, oppression, and discrimination.
Wagner et al. They found a consensus among them that biological races do not exist in humans, but that race does exist insofar as the social experiences of members of different races can have significant effects on health.
The study showed that the race concept was widely used among Chinese anthropologists. Lieberman et al. Rejection of race ranged from high to low, with the highest rejection rate in the United States and Canada, a moderate rejection rate in Europe, and the lowest rejection rate in Russia and China.
Methods used in the studies reported included questionnaires and content analysis. Kaszycka et al. Three factors, country of academic education, discipline, and age, were found to be significant in differentiating the replies.
Those educated in Western Europe, physical anthropologists, and middle-aged persons rejected race more frequently than those educated in Eastern Europe, people in other branches of science, and those from both younger and older generations.
Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropology in the United States has moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective.
Anthropologists have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is understood in the social sciences.
According to one academic journal entry, where 78 percent of the articles in the Journal of Physical Anthropology employed these or nearly synonymous terms reflecting a bio-race paradigm, only 36 percent did so in , and just 28 percent did in A "Statement on 'Race'" composed by a select committee of anthropologists and issued by the executive board of the American Anthropological Association , which they argue "represents generally the contemporary thinking and scholarly positions of a majority of anthropologists", declares: .
In the United States both scholars and the general public have been conditioned to viewing human races as natural and separate divisions within the human species based on visible physical differences.
With the vast expansion of scientific knowledge in this century, however, it has become clear that human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups.
Evidence from the analysis of genetics e. This means that there is greater variation within "racial" groups than between them. In neighboring populations there is much overlapping of genes and their phenotypic physical expressions.
Throughout history whenever different groups have come into contact, they have interbred. The continued sharing of genetic materials has maintained all of humankind as a single species.
An earlier survey , conducted in Lieberman et al. Lieberman's study also showed that more women reject the concept of race than men. The same survey, conducted again in ,  showed that the number of anthropologists disagreeing with the idea of biological race had risen substantially.
The results were as follows:. A line of research conducted by Cartmill , however, seemed to limit the scope of Lieberman's finding that there was "a significant degree of change in the status of the race concept".
In , Ann Morning interviewed over 40 American biologists and anthropologists and found significant disagreements over the nature of race, with no one viewpoint holding a majority among either group.
Morning also argues that a third position, "antiessentialism", which holds that race is not a useful concept for biologists, should be introduced into this debate in addition to "constructionism" and "essentialism".
According to the edition of a popular physical anthropology textbook, forensic anthropologists are overwhelmingly in support of the idea of the basic biological reality of human races.
Gill has said that the idea that race is only skin deep "is simply not true, as any experienced forensic anthropologist will affirm" and "Many morphological features tend to follow geographic boundaries coinciding often with climatic zones.
This is not surprising since the selective forces of climate are probably the primary forces of nature that have shaped human races with regard not only to skin color and hair form but also the underlying bony structures of the nose, cheekbones, etc.
For example, more prominent noses humidify air better. He also states that many biological anthropologists see races as real yet "not one introductory textbook of physical anthropology even presents that perspective as a possibility.
In a case as flagrant as this, we are not dealing with science but rather with blatant, politically motivated censorship".
Loring Brace argues that the reason laymen and biological anthropologists can determine the geographic ancestry of an individual can be explained by the fact that biological characteristics are clinally distributed across the planet, and that does not translate into the concept of race.
He states:. Well, you may ask, why can't we call those regional patterns "races"? In fact, we can and do, but it does not make them coherent biological entities.
What we do not see, however, is the myriad other traits that are distributed in a fashion quite unrelated to the intensity of ultraviolet radiation.
Where skin color is concerned, all the northern populations of the Old World are lighter than the long-term inhabitants near the equator.
Although Europeans and Chinese are obviously different, in skin color they are closer to each other than either is to equatorial Africans.
But if we test the distribution of the widely known ABO blood-group system, then Europeans and Africans are closer to each other than either is to Chinese.
The concept of "race" is still sometimes used within forensic anthropology when analyzing skeletal remains , biomedical research , and race-based medicine.
He argues that while forensic anthropologists can determine that a skeletal remain comes from a person with ancestors in a specific region of Africa, categorizing that skeletal as being "black" is a socially constructed category that is only meaningful in the particular social context of the United States, and which is not itself scientifically valid.
In the same survey Lieberman et al. The authors of the study also examined 77 college textbooks in biology and 69 in physical anthropology published between and Physical anthropology texts argued that biological races exist until the s, when they began to argue that races do not exist.
In contrast, biology textbooks did not undergo such a reversal but many instead dropped their discussion of race altogether.
The authors attributed this to biologists trying to avoid discussing the political implications of racial classifications, instead of discussing them, and to the ongoing discussions in biology about the validity of the concept "subspecies".
The authors also noted that some widely used textbooks in biology such as Douglas J. Futuyma 's "Evolutionary Biology" had abandoned the race concept, "The concept of race, masking the overwhelming genetic similarity of all peoples and the mosaic patterns of variation that do not correspond to racial divisions, is not only socially dysfunctional but is biologically indefensible as well pp.
In February , the editors of Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine asked "authors to not use race and ethnicity when there is no biological, scientific, or sociological reason for doing so.
In general, the material on race has moved from surface traits to genetics and evolutionary history. The study argues that the textbooks' fundamental message about the existence of races has changed little.
Surveying views on race in the scientific community in , Morning says that they often split along culture and demographic lines and that, since Lieberman's surveys, biologists have failed to come to a clear consensus, noting that "At best, one can conclude that biologists and anthropologists now appear equally divided in their beliefs about the nature of race.
Gissis examined several important American and British journals in genetics, epidemiology and medicine for their content during the — period.
He wrote that "Based upon my findings I argue that the category of race only seemingly disappeared from scientific discourse after World War II and has had a fluctuating yet continuous use during the time span from to , and has even become more pronounced from the early s on ".
The researchers recognized the problems with racial and ethnic variables but the majority still believed these variables were necessary and useful.
A examination of 18 widely used English anatomy textbooks found that they all represented human biological variation in superficial and outdated ways, many of them making use of the race concept in ways that were current in s anthropology.
The authors recommended that anatomical education should describe human anatomical variation in more detail and rely on newer research that demonstrates the inadequacies of simple racial typologies.
Black's Law Dictionary defines race as "[a]n ethnical stock; a great division of mankind [sic] having in common certain distinguishing physical peculiarities constituting a comprehensive class appearance.
Lester Frank Ward , considered to be one of the founders of American sociology, rejected notions that there were fundamental differences that distinguished one race from another, although he acknowledged that social conditions differed dramatically by race.
White sociologist Charlotte Perkins Gilman — , for example, used biological arguments to claim the inferiority of African Americans.
Cooley — theorized that differences among races were "natural," and that biological differences result in differences in intellectual abilities   Edward Alsworth Ross , also an important figure in the founding of American sociology, and an eugenicist , believed that whites were the superior race, and that there were essential differences in "temperament" among races.
Weatherly that called for white supremacy and segregation of the races to protect racial purity. Du Bois — , one of the first African-American sociologists, was the first sociologist to use sociological concepts and empirical research methods to analyze race as a social construct instead of a biological reality.
In his work, he contended that social class , colonialism , and capitalism shaped ideas about race and racial categories. Social scientists largely abandoned scientific racism and biological reasons for racial categorization schemes by the s.
In the United States, federal government policy promotes the use of racially categorized data to identify and address health disparities between racial or ethnic groups.
Doctors have noted that some medical conditions are more prevalent in certain racial or ethnic groups than in others, without being sure of the cause of those differences.
Recent interest in race-based medicine , or race-targeted pharmacogenomics , has been fueled by the proliferation of human genetic data which followed the decoding of the human genome in the first decade of the twenty-first century.
There is an active debate among biomedical researchers about the meaning and importance of race in their research. Proponents of the use of racial categories in biomedicine argue that continued use of racial categorizations in biomedical research and clinical practice makes possible the application of new genetic findings, and provides a clue to diagnosis.
Members of the latter camp often base their arguments around the potential to create genome-based personalized medicine.
Other researchers point out that finding a difference in disease prevalence between two socially defined groups does not necessarily imply genetic causation of the difference.
In an attempt to provide general descriptions that may facilitate the job of law enforcement officers seeking to apprehend suspects, the United States FBI employs the term "race" to summarize the general appearance skin color, hair texture, eye shape, and other such easily noticed characteristics of individuals whom they are attempting to apprehend.
From the perspective of law enforcement officers, it is generally more important to arrive at a description that will readily suggest the general appearance of an individual than to make a scientifically valid categorization by DNA or other such means.
Thus, in addition to assigning a wanted individual to a racial category, such a description will include: height, weight, eye color, scars and other distinguishing characteristics.
The other is categories used by the police when they visually identify someone as belonging to an ethnic group, e. In many countries, such as France , the state is legally banned from maintaining data based on race, which often makes the police issue wanted notices to the public that include labels like "dark skin complexion", etc.
In the United States, the practice of racial profiling has been ruled to be both unconstitutional and a violation of civil rights. There is active debate regarding the cause of a marked correlation between the recorded crimes, punishments meted out, and the country's populations.
Many consider de facto racial profiling an example of institutional racism in law enforcement. Mass incarceration in the United States disproportionately impacts African American and Latino communities.
Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness , argues that mass incarceration is best understood as not only a system of overcrowded prisons.
Mass incarceration is also, "the larger web of laws, rules, policies, and customs that control those labeled criminals both in and out of prison.
She compares mass incarceration to Jim Crow laws , stating that both work as racial caste systems.
Many research findings appear to agree that the impact of victim race in the IPV arrest decision might possibly include a racial bias in favor of white victims.
A study in a national sample of IPV arrests found that female arrest was more likely if the male victim was white and the female offender was black, while male arrest was more likely if the female victim was white.
For both female and male arrest in IPV cases, situations involving married couples were more likely to lead to arrest compared to dating or divorced couples.
Recent work using DNA cluster analysis to determine race background has been used by some criminal investigators to narrow their search for the identity of both suspects and victims.
The Constitution of Australia contains a line about 'people of any race for whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws', despite there being no agreed definition of race described in the document.
Similarly, forensic anthropologists draw on highly heritable morphological features of human remains e. In a article, anthropologist Norman Sauer noted that anthropologists had generally abandoned the concept of race as a valid representation of human biological diversity, except for forensic anthropologists.
He asked, "If races don't exist, why are forensic anthropologists so good at identifying them? A specimen may display features that point to African ancestry.
In this country that person is likely to have been labeled Black regardless of whether or not such a race actually exists in nature.
Identification of the ancestry of an individual is dependent upon knowledge of the frequency and distribution of phenotypic traits in a population.
This does not necessitate the use of a racial classification scheme based on unrelated traits, although the race concept is widely used in medical and legal contexts in the United States.
Census data is also important in allowing the accurate identification of the individual's "race". In a different approach, anthropologist C.
Loring Brace said:. The simple answer is that, as members of the society that poses the question, they are inculcated into the social conventions that determine the expected answer.
They should also be aware of the biological inaccuracies contained in that "politically correct" answer.
Skeletal analysis provides no direct assessment of skin color, but it does allow an accurate estimate of original geographical origins.
African, eastern Asian, and European ancestry can be specified with a high degree of accuracy. Africa of course entails "black", but "black" does not entail African.
In association with a NOVA program in about race, he wrote an essay opposing use of the term. The study concluded that "The apportionment of genetic diversity in skin color is atypical, and cannot be used for purposes of classification.
This suggests that classifying humans into races based on skeletal characteristics would necessitate many different "races" being defined.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about human races as a social concept and in anthropology. For the sociological concept, see Race and society.
For "the human race" all of humanity , see Human. For the term "race" in biology, see Race biology. For belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, see Racialism.
Race and ethnicity in Brazil in the United States. Racism in the United States. Racial bias in criminal news. Outline History. Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social.
Social Cultural. Research framework. Key concepts. Key theories. Actor—network theory Alliance theory Cross-cultural studies Cultural materialism Culture theory Diffusionism Feminism Historical particularism Boasian anthropology Functionalism Interpretive Performance studies Political economy Practice theory Structuralism Post-structuralism Systems theory.
Anthropologists by nationality Anthropology by year Bibliography Journals List of indigenous peoples Organizations. See also: Historical race concepts.
See also: Multiregional hypothesis and Recent single origin hypothesis. Skin color above and blood type B below are nonconcordant traits since their geographical distribution is not similar.
Main articles: Race and genetics and Human genetic variation. Main article: Human genetic clustering. Main articles: Race and society and Racialism.
Main article: Race in Brazil. Main article: Race and ethnicity in the United States. See also: Sociology of race and ethnic relations.
Main article: Race and health. See also: Pharmacogenomics. Main article: Racial profiling. Main article: Forensic anthropology.
In Schaefer, Richard T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Volume 1. SAGE Publications. Retrieved 22 August This means that there is greater variation within 'racial' groups than between them.
Nature Genetics. Modern human biological variation is not structured into phylogenetic subspecies 'races' , nor are the taxa of the standard anthropological 'racial' classifications breeding populations.
The 'racial taxa' do not meet the phylogenetic criteria. Race and Reality. Amherst: Prometheus Books. Race is a poor empirical description of the patterns of difference that we encounter within our species.
The billions of humans alive today simply do not fit into neat and tidy biological boxes called races. Science has proven this conclusively.
The concept of race Fatal Invention. The genetic differences that exist among populations are characterized by gradual changes across geographic regions, not sharp, categorical distinctions.
Groups of people across the globe have varying frequencies of polymorphic genes, which are genes with any of several differing nucleotide sequences.
There is no such thing as a set of genes that belongs exclusively to one group and not to another. The clinal, gradually changing nature of geographic genetic difference is complicated further by the migration and mixing that human groups have engaged in since prehistory.
Human beings do not fit the zoological definition of race. A mountain of evidence assembled by historians, anthropologists, and biologists proves that race is not and cannot be a natural division of human beings.
December Coll Antropol. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 October Each of the major division of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics [example elided].
A group of people sharing the same culture, history, language, etc. Provides 8 definitions, from biological to literary; only the most pertinent have been quoted.
Many terms requiring definition for use describe demographic population groups better than the term 'race' because they invite examination of the criteria for classification.
Retrieved 16 August New England Journal of Medicine. Fish ed. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 8 October Groundbreaking advances in DNA sequencing technology have been made over the last two decades.
Recent genetic studies have demonstrated differences across populations not just in the genetic determinants of simple traits such as skin color, but also in more complex traits like bodily dimensions and susceptibility to diseases.
Buzzfeed New. Archived from the original on 30 August Nor does that variation map precisely onto ever changing socially defined racial groups.
By the late 19th century, the idea that inequality was the basis of natural order , known as the great chain of being , was part of the common lexicon.
Science as Culture. Hackett Publishing Company. The ancients would not understand the social construct we call "race" any more than they would understand the distinction modem scholars and social scientists generally draw between race and "ethnicity.
In the post-Enlightenment world, a "scientific," biological idea of race suggested that human difference could be explained by biologically distinct groups of humans, evolved from separate origins, who could be distinguished by physical differences, predominantly skin color Such categorizations would have confused the ancient Greeks and Romans.
American Journal of Human Genetics. The Anthropological Review. Cela-Conde and Francisco J. Human Evolution an illustrated introduction.
Fifth edition. London: Times Books. The lack of concurrence on the meaning and identification of races continued into the 21st century, and contemporary scientists are no closer to agreement than their forebears.
Thus, race has never in the history of its use had a precise meaning. Instead, human physical variations tend to overlap.
There are no genes that can identify distinct groups that accord with the conventional race categories. In fact, DNA analyses have proved that all humans have much more in common, genetically, than they have differences.
The genetic difference between any two humans is less than 1 percent. Moreover, geographically widely separated populations vary from one another in only about 6 to 8 percent of their genes.
Because of the overlapping of traits that bear no relationship to one another such as skin colour and hair texture and the inability of scientists to cluster peoples into discrete racial packages, modern researchers have concluded that the concept of race has no biological validity.
Many scholars in other disciplines now accept this relatively new scientific understanding of biological diversity in the human species.
It derives its most salient characteristics from the social consequences of its classificatory use.Der Spartan ist nicht nur ein Test der körperlichen Fitness, sondern vor allem eine Möglichkeit, die eigene Komfortzone zu verlassen. We are working at speed to finalise those options and will be in Lukas Stiftung with you. Wenn man es nicht schafft, reicht es, 30 Burpees zu machen, um das Rennen fortsetzen zu können. Live Commentary. Auf Wagemutige, die am Wochenende alle drei Races absolvieren, wartet eine besondere Medaille.